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An American Ballroom Companion - Volume 4 - 58 Manuals on CD

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An American Ballroom Companion presents a collection of over two hundred historical social dance manuals. The list begins with a rare late fifteenth-century source, Les basses danses de Marguerite d'Autriche (c.1490) and ends with Ella Gardner's 1929 Public dance halls, their regulation and place in the recreation of adolescents. Along with dance instruction manuals, this online presentation also includes a significant number of antidance manuals, histories, treatises on etiquette, and items from other conceptual categories. Many of the manuals also provide historical information on theatrical dance. All illuminate the manner in which people have joyfully expressed themselves as they dance for and with one another.

Below you will find a detailed description of each of the manuals included on this CD.

Elegantní tanecník / dle rozlicných pramenu upravila Anna Lorenzová. Lorenzová, Anna.

CREATED/PUBLISHED V Trebíci : Nakladatel Jindrich Lorenz, [189-] (V Dacicích : Tisk Ant. Kasalého)

SUMMARY This diminutive manual, written in Czech, contains descriptions of popular ballroom dances including the polka, mazurka, waltz, quadrille, and polonaise. Lorenzová demonstrates that late nineteenth-century ballroom traditions were similar throughout western and eastern Europe.

Trattato teorico-prattico di ballo di Gennaro Magri ... Magri, Gennaro, fl. 1779.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Napoli, V. Orsino, 1779.

SUMMARY This manual represents one of the most important sources on dance technique for the second half of the eighteenth century and is a critical link between Baroque dance and early romantic ballet. Part one is divided into sixty sections describing various aspects of dance beginning with a statement on the utility of dance, and feet positions. The manual continus with descriptions of many steps, for example, four of battemens, nine types of pas de bourrée; balloté; and twenty-three types of cabriole. Also includd is extensive information on late eighteenth-century grotesque style, especially important for the study of Italian pantomime. Part two discusses the responsibilities of a dancing master and manner of performing the minuet. The manual concludes with instructions for thirty-nine contradanze (contredanses) including one dance that is arranged for thirty-two performers.

Traité sur l'art de la danse, dédié á Monsieur Gardel, l'ainé ... Par M. Malpied ... Malpied, N.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Paris, Boüin; [etc., etc., 1770?]

SUMMARY This instructional manual describes Baroque dance steps and their correlation with music using the notation system published by Raoul-Auger Feuillet in 1700. Additionally, the manual contains information on the minuet and also provides an extensive discussion on hand and arm positions.

A treatise on the use and peculiar advantages of dancing and exercises, considered as a means of refinement and physical development ... By Francis Mason. Mason, Francis.

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, Sharp & Hale, 1854.

SUMMARY In this book dancing master Mason attempts to make a case for the advantages of dancing and traces the development of dance from ancient times. As part of his argument, Mason often distinguishes between the dance of civilized and uncivilized peoples. His bias is clear in the following: "Man in a civilized state generally turns the feet outwards, as in an uncivilized state they are invariably turned inwards" (p. 11).

The ball room guide, being a compendium of the theory, practice, and etiquette of dancing, embracing the newest quadrilles, polkas ... also, the Meyen quadrille, as taught by H. Meyen ... Meyen, H[enry]

CREATED/PUBLISHED New York, E. & J. Magnus, 1852.

SUMMARY This manual begins, as do others of the period, with a general introduction that covers the necessity of dancing and a brief history of the dance. Declaring that bodily exercise "drives away sorrow and care," the author asks, "how is it that there are men malicious enough to condemn this innocent pastime?" (p. 12). The manual continues with ten rules to be observed at balls, duties of managers, and seven rules for the German cotillon (a series of dance games). While Meyer gives figures for quadrilles and directions for fourteen German cotillon figures, his descriptions of round dances are vague. For example, in a describing the polks, he notes it "is either danced in a circle...or at variety, eight bars to the right and eight bars to the left...(pg. 23).

Arte de danzar a la francesa, adornado con quarenta figuras, que enseñan el modo de hacer todos los diferentes passos de la danza del minuete, con todas sus reglas, y de conducir los brazos en cada passo: y en quatro figuras, el modo de danzar los tres passapies. Tambien estàn escritos en solfa, para que qualquier musico los sepa tañer. Su autor Pablo Minguet e Irol ... Añadido en esta tercera impression todos los passos, ó movimientos del danzar à la española ... Minguet é Irol, Pablo, d. 1801?

CREATED/PUBLISHED [Madrid, P. Minguet, en su casa, 1737?]

SUMMARY Published in 1758 by engraver, writer, and translator Minguet é Irol, this manual incorporates sections of Raoul-Feuillet's Choreographie (Paris, 1700) and Pierre Rameau's Le Maître de danser (Paris, 1725), although neither author is credited. Part one describes feet positions, the manner of managing one's hat, and provides a large vocabulary of steps used in eighteenth-century dance technique. Part two includes dances by Feuillet and French dancer and choreographer, Guillaume-Louis Pecour. The third section discusses contredances. The last and most interesting part, dated 1764, gives descriptions for forty-five steps used in Spanish dance.

De la danse. Par Moreau de Saint-Méry ... Moreau de Saint-Méry, M. L. E. 1750-1819. (Médéric Louis Elie),

CREATED/PUBLISHED Parme, Imprimé par Bodoni, 1801.

SUMMARY This manual describes a colonial view of the history of dance in the West Indies, focusing on the dance of Creoles. Moreau de Saint-Méry (1750-1819), discusses the effects of slavery and the African roots for such dances as the chica and notes that contredanses and minuets were also performed.

Nvove inventioni di balli; opera vaghissima nella quale si danno i giusti modi del ben portar la vita, et di accommodarsi con ogni leggiadria di mouimento alle creanze et gratie d'amore. Conueneuoli a tutti i cavalieri, & dame, per ogni sorte di ballo, balletto, & brando d'Italia, di Spagna & di Francia. Con figure ... in rame et regole della musica et intauolatura quali si richieggono al suono et al canto. Divisa in tre trattati ... Negri, Cesare, b. 1536?

OTHER TITLES Nuove inventioni di balli

CREATED/PUBLISHED Milano, G. Bordone, 1604.

SUMMARY Originally published as Le gratie d'amore in 1602, this manual is considered one of them most valuable and diverse primary sources on Italian court dance. Divided into three parts, the first part illuminates the career and students of dancing master Cesare Negri (ca. 1536-ca. 1604; also known as Il Trombone); the second is devoted to the era's most virtuosic dance type, the galliard; and the third section details a wide repertory of additional steps utilized in the treatise's forty-three choreographies. Many of the choreographies are preceded by full-page illustrations and each dance is provided with appropriate music written in Italian lute tablature and/or mensural notation.

Dances of to-day, by Albert W. Newman ... an expert's full directions, with illustrations and diagrams, for learning or teaching the tango, hesitation, one-step, Boston, maxixe and all other modern dances. Newman, Albert W.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Philadelphia, The Penn publishing company, 1914.

SUMMARY Declaring his book to be the "absolute authorith on modern dancing," Newman describes a large selection of the most popular ragtime dances including the Castle Walk, Castle Glide, one step, horse trot, tango, maxixe, and lame duck. The manual is enhanced with line drawings and photographs and contains music for the "Newman Tango."

Stage and fancy dancing. By F. C. Nott ... Nott, F. C.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Cincinnati, O., J. M. Wright, 1896.

SUMMARY Although the manual begins with a description of the "five ballet positions," the book is intended for amateurs. Nott presents directions for thirty steps such as leap, boure [sic]-quick, hop, dash, slide, and paddle step. Included also are choreographies for over twenty dances such a "Skip Rope Dance," "Skirt Dance,""Cloak Dance," "Witches Dance," and "Cachucha."

The tango and the new dances for ballroom and home, by Maurice [pseud.] ... illustrated with photographs and diagrams. All steps described so plainly anyone can readily learn them. [O'Donnell, Bales] 1874-

CREATED/PUBLISHED Chicago, Laird & Lee, inc. [c1914]

SUMMARY This manual is a series of articles written by Maurice, who, along with his partner Florence Walden, was one of the most famous exhibition ballroom dancers of the era. Included are descriptions for the tango, Brazilian maxixe, Maurice walk, nineteen figures for "Nights of Gladness" Waltz, and twelve figures for "La Habanera."

Social dancing inconsistent with a Christian profession and baptismal vows: a sermon, preached in the Presbyterian church, Columbia, S.C., June 17, 1849, by B. M. Palmer ... Palmer, B. M. 1818-1902. (Benjamin Morgan),

CREATED/PUBLISHED Columbia, Printed at the office of the South Carolinian, 1849.

SUMMARY Taken from a sermon delivered 17 June 1849, Palmer's book is typical of midnineteenth-century antidance literature. He declares that the seventeen references to dance in the Bible are all performed by one sex, in open fields, and in broad daylight. This, Palmer (1818-1902) concludes, is not the case with balls, in which the sexes dance together, in closed quarters, and at night. The author declares that human nature is "fallen and depraved, and subject to the domination of wicked passions," therefore, attending balls is promiscuous, demoralizing and inconsistent with baptismal vows.

Le cotillon et les quadrilles actuels; traité théorique et pratique, par F. Paul ... Paul, F.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Paris, E. Gérard et cie, 1877.

SUMMARY This manual provides instructions for the figures of five quadrilles including one for three couples (rather than the normal four couples). However, the main focus of the book is on the cotillon (also known as the German), a group dance consisting of a series of party games of figures. The manual provides 182 figures.

Sketches relative to the history and theory, but more especially to the practice of dancing ... Intended as hints to the young teachers of the art of dancing. By Francis Peacock ... Peacock, Francis, 1723-1807.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Aberdeen, Printed by J. Chalmers & co., 1805.

SUMMARY This manual begins with a discussion on the importance of dance for youth and outlines the origins of dance. Although much of the historical and theoretical text is borrowed from other dance writers--notably Giovanni-Andrea Gallini and John Weaver--the manual is important for its description of the Scotch reel and accompanying ten reel steps. Some of the steps include kemshóole (forward step), minor and double kemkóssy (setting steps), lematrást (cross springs), and curatag (turning step).

An essay for the further improvement of dancing; being a collection of figure dances, of several numbers, compos'd by the most eminent masters; describ'd in characters after the newest manner of Monsieur Feuillet. By E. Pemberton. To which is added, three single dances, viz. a chacone by Mr. Isaac, a passacaille by Mr. L'Abbe, and a jig by Mr. Pecour ... Pemberton, E.

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, J. Walsh [etc.] 1711.

There is no harm in dancing, by W. E. Penn, with an introduction by Rev. J. H. Stribling, D.D. ... Penn, W. E.

CREATED/PUBLISHED St. Louis, Mo., L. E. Kline, 1884.

SUMMARY The basic premise in this antidance treatise is typical of this genre of dance literature; namely, dance is bad for the health and is a waste of money. The author utilizes a novel approach and uses trees as metaphors to support his arguments. Some trees are "not comely to look upon, but the fruit very good." Other trees have dangerous fruit and the author concludes that samples of the fruit found on the tree of dancing include "pride, lasciviousness, lying, drunkenness, embezzlement, fornication, cruelty, idolatry, prostitution, abortion, and assassination." The manual was reissued in 1886 as The Upas Tree.

Ist tanzen sünde? Von G. J. Pfefferkorn ... Pfefferkorn, George J.

CREATED/PUBLISHED [Chippewa Falls, Wis.] c1901.

SUMMARY This antidance treatise was directed at the large German-speaking population that settled in the mid-western section of the United States. Pfefferkorn's two main arguments are common in this genre of literature: dance is a waste of time and money and, additionally, is bad for the health. The author concludes that dance is sinful and dangerous, leading to carnal appetites and immoral thoughts and actions.

Familiar dialogues on dancing, between a minister and a dancer; taken from matter of fact with an appendix containing some extracts from the writings of pious and eminent men against the entertainments of the stage, and other vain amusements ... By John Phillips ... Phillips, John, Rev.

CREATED/PUBLISHED New York, Printed by T. Kirk, 1798.

SUMMARY Substantiated by quotations from other writers including Pascall, Prince of Conti, Chief Justice Hale, and Archbishop Tillotson, Phillips declares dance to be a vain and idle amusement. While he acknowledges that many people assume the study of dance teaches good carriage and a "graceful and easy way of moving our limbs," he notes that Quakers, "who hold dancing in abomination," manage to display good carriage without benefit of dance instruction. As with other writers of antidance literature, Phillips notes that, although dance wasprevalent during biblical times, only women participated.

Powell's art of dancing; or, Dancing made easy ... By R. Powell ... Powell, R.

OTHER TITLES Dancing made easy

CREATED/PUBLISHED Louisville, Ky., Harney, Hughes & Hughes, printers, 1848.

SUMMARY In an attempt to inspire his readers who were located far from the United States' urban, eastern cultural centers, Powell notes that dance "has not improved, except in the larger cities." Of primary interest is the author's dance notation, a type of shorthand that he utilized to describe bows, curtsies, and quadrilles.

The royal ball-room guide and etiquette of the drawingroom, containing the newest and most elegant dances and a short history of dancing. By Rudolph Radestock ... Radestock, Rudolph.

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, Otley, W. Walker and sons [pref. 1877]

SUMMARY Like other nineteenth-century dance manuals, this is a compilation of earlier writings. The book provides a short history of dance, positions of the feet, glossary of French terms, and suggestions for giving balls including an admonishment to have enough waiters at the supper table. Indicating the decade's growing interest in elaborate balls, Radestock suggests one waiter for each two persons. The section on etiquette has been reduced to thirty-three short rules and the manual describes most of the popular ballroom dances--quadrille, waltz, schottisch, and a variety of country dances.

Abbregé de la nouvelle methode, dans l'art d'écrire ou de traçer toutes sortes, de danses de ville ... mise au jour par le sr. Rameau ... Ouvrage très utile pour toutes personnes qui ont sçu ou qui apprennent à danser, puis que par le secour de ce livre, on peut se remettre facilement dans toutes les danses que l'on à appris ... Rameau, Pierre.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Paris, Chez l'auteur, faubourg St Germain [etc., 1725?]

SUMMARY The first part of this manual discusses performance of various steps including demi coupé, bourée, chassé, and pirouette. Through the use of text and tables, Rameau also provides discussion on an improved and simplified version of Feuillet notation, the eighteenth-century system of recording dances. The second part of the text consists of notations for twelve duets choreographed by French dancer and choreographer, Guillaume-Louis Pecour.

Le maître a danser. Qui enseigne la maniere de faire tous les differens pas de danse dans toute la régularité de l'art, & de conduire les bras à chaque pas ... Par le sieur Rameau ... Rameau, Pierre.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Paris, Rollin fils, 1748.

SUMMARY Originally published in 1725 and reissued in 1734 and 1748 by French dancing master and writer Pierre Rameau (1674-1748), this is one of the most important sources for the study and reconstruction of eighteenth-century dance technique. Part one of the text (with accompanying full-page plates) carefully describes the appropriate manner of walking, feet positions, bows, and a large vocabulary of steps. Part two covers use of the arms while dancing. The manual was translated into English in 1728 by dancer and dancing master, John Essex.

The dancing-master: or, The art of dancing explained ... In two parts ... The whole containing sixty figures drawn from the life, and curiously engraved on copper plates. Done from the French of Monsieur Rameau, by J. Essex ... Rameau, Pierre.

OTHER TITLES Art of dancing explained Dancing-master

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, Printed and sold by him, and J. Brotherton, 1728.

SUMMARY This is a translation of one of the most important sources for the study and reconstruction of eighteenth-century dance--Pierre Rameau's 1725 Le maître a danser. Translated by English dancer and writer John Essex (c. 1680-1744), part one of the text and accompanying full-page plates carefully focus on the appropriate manner of walking, feet positions, and bows, and describe a large vocabulary of steps. Part two covers use of the arms while dancing. This English translation was reissued in 1732.

The amateur's vademecum. A practical treatise on the art of dancing ... By E. B. Reilley ... Reilley, E. B.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Philadelphia, J. Nicholas, printer, 1870.

SUMMARY Reilley's work is a typical example of dance manuals published during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Whereas previous manuals often had many pages devoted to etiquette and deportment, Reilly devotes but two paragraphs noting that he was leaving the rest to the "good sense and nature" of his readers. The manual provides an extensive history of dance from the Greeks and Romans to the courts of Italy and France to the dances of aboriginal American Indians. Demonstrating the century's growing interest in physical education, Reilley provides a detailed section on exercise. The manual gives descriptions of the popular ballroom dances of the era--quadrilles, waltz, schottisch, and polka.

A discourse on dancing, delivered in the Central Presbyterian church, Cincinnati. By N. L. Rice. Rice, N. L. 1807-1877. (Nathan Lewis),

CREATED/PUBLISHED Cincinnati, The Presbyterian book depository, and W. H. Moore, 1847.

SUMMARY This book is typical of mid-nineteenth century antidance works. While many writers noted that the Bible contains numerous references to dance, Rice (1807-1877) points out that, in a biblical context, dance was utilized as a part of worship, performed exclusively by women dancing with each other. (The dangers of contact between the sexes while dancing were a common theme in antidance literature.) The second point, also common in antidance books, centered on the notion that dancing was bad for the health, especially in women.

A full description of modern dances. By C. H. Rivers. Rivers, Charles H.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Brooklyn [1885]

SUMMARY Unlike earlier manuals that contained detailed information on etiquette, this manual reflects the trend of late nineteenth-century manuals to shorten or eliminate such information. This manual contains only one-third of a page of etiquette. Dances described include the waltz (with reversing steps), polka, schottisch, polka redowa, polka mazurka, galop, quadrilles, contra dances ("Scilian Circle," "Spanish Dance" and "Rustic Reel"). Thirty-seven figures are given for the popular series of party game figures known as the cotillon or German.

Roberts' manual of fashionable dancing and vade mecum for the ball-room; containing a review and full description of all the modern dances, &c. Roberts, [Henry]

CREATED/PUBLISHED Melbourne, G. Robertson, 1875.

SUMMARY Like many European and North American manuals of the nineteenth century, this Australian version is acknowledged by the publisher to be a compilation of other writer's work. To enhance the book's marketability, the author states that many "who have left the colonies for London, Paris, and other continental cities" have admirably acquitted and distinguished themselves. The book describes quadrilles and waltzes as well as dances popular in the 1840s such as the "Cellarius Waltz."

The prompter's own book; or, Rowe's calls for the ball room. Contains all the latest and best calls necessary for an all night party ... Rowe, George H.

OTHER TITLES Rowe's calls for the ball room

CREATED/PUBLISHED Boston, G. H. Rowe, c1878.

SUMMARY Foreshadowing the growing trend of late nineteenth-century dance manuals to reduce discussion on etiquette, Rowe's treatise contains absolutely no information on the subject but begins directly with information on the quadrille. This book advertised for 25 cents, is far less extensive than most published during the 1870s.

Die modernen Tänze, von msgr. don Luigi Sartori. Frei übersetzt und verändert von p. Vigilius H. Krull, C. PP. S. Sartori, Luigi, b. 1843.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Collegeville, Ind., St. Josephs buchdruckerei, 1910.

Modern dances, by Rt. Rev. Mgr. Don Luigi Sartori. Sartori, Luigi, b. 1843.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Colleg[e]ville, Ind., St. Joseph's printing office, 1910.

SUMMARY Like other publications of its kind, the book defends the dances of the Greeks and Romans as well as dances mentioned in the Bible on the grounds that they were performed by segregated sexes. With customary western bias, Sartori notes that when Christianity "supplanted Paganism, it found many objectionable practices and customs which it had to eradicate. One was dancing." The author objects both to waltzing, which he claims to be a violation of the Sixth Commandment, and the quadrille, which is "a malicious preparation to enjoy the mad rush to a close embrace." The manual was also published in German under the title Die modernen Tänze.

The art of dancing, embracing a full description of the various dances of the present day ... by Judson Sause ... Sause, Judson.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Chicago, New York [etc.] Belford, Clarke & company, [c1889]

SUMMARY This manual is acknowledged by the author to be a compilation of other sources. In its eight chapters, the work covers etiquette, general instructions for feet positions and bows, the quadrille, contra dances ("Spanish Dance," "Sicilian Circle," and "Virginia Reel"), as well as the polka, redowa, York, schottisch, military schottisch, Bohemian, and several waltz variations--modern, hop, five-step, and knickerbocker. The manual concludes with thirty-two figures for the German (also known as the cotillon).

Course of instruction in dancing and aesthetic development of the body [by] L. F. Segadlo ... Segadlo, L. F.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Newark, N.J., c1889.

SUMMARY This is a translation by Segadlo of an article, by an unknown author, found in the Universal Gazette, published in Vienna, Austria. It is a strong defense of dance and exercise, a subject that was often discussed during the late nineteenth century. The manual concludes with three sets of quadrilles as taught by the author, "Princeton University Lancers," "Saratoga Lancers," and the plain quadrille.

Manners and social usages, by Mrs. John Sherwood ... Sherwood, M. E. W. 1826-1903. (Mary Elizabeth Wilson),

CREATED/PUBLISHED New York, Harper & brothers, 1887.

SUMMARY Etiquette manuals are an important sources of information on ballrooms and social dance during the nineteenth-century. Sherwood's book is an exceptional source for etiquette as it was practiced in the late 1880s. Additionally, of the book's fifty-nine chapters, two are devoted to dancing and balls.

A history of dancing. By Reginald St. Johnston ... St. Johnston, Thomas Reginald, Sir, 1881-1950

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, & co., 1906.

SUMMARY Saint Johnston claims to be filling a gap in the tracing of dance history and confesses he knows of only three books on the subject, those by Gaston Vuillier, Edward Scott, and John Weaver. The work contains much of the sme information found in numerous other historiographies of the era. The author considers the birth of stage dancing to be the Kate Vaughan's "Skirt Dance" and other opinions expressed by Saint Johnston include the erroneous notion that the quadrille was one of the dances that directly followed the minuet. As was common thinking during this era, the author maintains a strict western bias with chapter titles such as "Quaint Dances in Civilized Countries.

Call book of modern quadrilles ... Arranged and explained by Herman A. Strassburg, jr. ... Strassburg, Herman A., jr.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Detroit, Mich., American music co., c1889.

SUMMARY The author of this manual declares that "every person should be able to dance ... quadrilles without the aid of a 'caller.'" Unlike other contemporary call books, Strassburg provides the calls as well as a brief description of the figures. The work also includes three waltz quadrilles (one is set for three couples) that are credited to the well-known dancing master E. W. Masters of Boston.

Elements of the art of dancing; with a description of the principal figures in the quadrille. By Alexander Strathy ... Strathy, Alexander.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Edinburgh, Printed for the author, and sold by F. Pillans [etc.] 1822.

SUMMARY One of the most important manuals devoted to the performance of early nineteenth-century quadrilles, Strathy divides this manual into two parts. Part one is an extensive treatment of exercises for the improvement of one's deportment. Part two provides lucid descriptions for more than twenty steps appropriate for the performance of the quadrille, a popular ballroom dance performed by four couples who face each other in a square. Additionally, Strathy provides combinations of steps for the most common figures of the quadrille. The manual concludes with directions, given in French and English, for eleven quadrille figures.

The tango, as standardized and taught by the representative dancing masters of the North American continent; tango two-step, hesitation waltz, Boston glide, one-step, described by Miss Eileen Swepstone ... illustrated by Miss Swepstone and Mr. Bernard Tweedale. Swepstone, Eileen.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Vancouver, B.C., J. H. Welch [1914]

SUMMARY This pamphlet on the tango, claimed by its author to have been "shorn of crudities which caused it to be criticized," describes a variety of steps and step combinations.

Letters on dancing, reducing this elegant and healthful exercise to easy scientific principles ... By E. A. Théleur ... Illustrated by twenty-four copper-plate engravings, by Stewart, Halpin, Hicks and Read ... Théleur, E. A.

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, Author, 1832.

SUMMARY This manual is considered one of the most important discussions regarding the style and steps of early Romantic ballet. A dancer and dancing master, Théleur (née Taylor; fl. c. 1817-c.1844), wrote his manual in the form of a series of thirteen letters that includes a brief history of dance as well as a section devoted to social dance. The book is enhanced by full-page prints, including illustrations of dancers on full pointe. Théleur's dance notation system, the first in the nineteenth century, also helps illuminate theatrical dance practices of the time.

The lady's guide to perfect gentility, in manners, dress, and conversation ... also a useful instructor in letter writing ... etc. By Emily Thornwell ... Thornwell, Emily.

CREATED/PUBLISHED New York, Derby & Jackson; Cincinnati, H. W. Derby & co., 1857. NOTES Etiquette manuals are an important source for information on issues relating to the study of nineteenth-century social dance. Thornwell discusses the complexion, appropriate dress, introductions, behavior at parties, rules "on polite, easy, and graceful deportment," hints for conversation including "words, and sayings to be avoided," and concludes with chapters on needle-work and dress-making. Although much of Thornwell's manual was extracted from E. C. de Calabrella's 1844, The Ladies' Science of Etiquette, the manual was popular enough to be reissued ten times between 1857 and 1890.

Samouchitel' modnykh bal'nykh i kharakternykh tantsev. Tikhomirov, Aleksei Dmitrievich.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Moskva, 1901.

SUMMARY Translated as "Self-tutor of fashionable social and characteristic dances," this is an important Russian-language manual that describes the role of social dance, the importance of proper bearing, bows, introductions, and etiquette. Many of the same are the same as those performed in the ballrooms of western Europe, such as the waltz, quadrille, polonaise, polka, pas de patinier. Other dances are more interesting--the mazurka, pas de'Espagne, Hongroise, csárdas, and kamarinskaya. The descriptions are enhanced by diagrams and drawings. Some of the dance titles are written in French, the prevailing language of the ballroom.

The art of dancing explained by reading and figures; whereby the manner of performing the steps is made easy by a new and familiar method: being the original work, first design'd in the year 1724, and now published by Kellom Tomlinson, dancing-master ... Tomlinson, Kellom.

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, Printed for the author, 1735.

SUMMARY The title page indicates the book was completed in 1724. However, the cost of the thirty-five full-page plates precluded publication until 1735. In this treatise of two parts, Tomlinson (c. 1690-1753?) sets forth the principles of Baroque dance. Book one covers description of twenty nine steps; book two discusses the minuet, including four methods of performing the minuet step.

Clog dancing made easy. The elements and practice of that art arranged, simplified and corrected ... By Henry Tucker. Tucker, Henry.

CREATED/PUBLISHED New York, R. M. DeWitt, c1874.

SUMMARY This manual contains instructions for twelve steps that, according to the author, can be learned by practicing two hours a day. Libretti and music are provided for four musical comedy sketches that require clog dancing.

Essai sur la danse antique et moderne ... Par Mme Élise Voiart. Voïart, Élise, 1786-1866.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Paris, Audot, 1823.

SUMMARY All of Mme. Voiart's manual is devoted to the history of dance. Quoting heavily from many previously published materials, including a number of travelogues, this book discusses the origins of dance and devotes a chapter each to Greek and Roman dance. The second part of the book discusses transition to what the author terms "modern dance," in this case the court dances of France. In examining the dances of the French Baroque court, Mme. Voiart (1786-1866) refers to a great variety of dances including the courante, minuet, and gavotte as well as dances from at least one hundred years earlier such as the pavane and branle. Demonstrating an interest in non-European dance, the book also discusses dance as practiced in other parts of the world including Norway, Canada, the Sioux of Missouri, and Africa. Although the scholarship, by contemporary standards, is seriously flawed, the book is part of the large body of literature that has influenced the writing of dance history for more than one hundred years.

The modern dances, how to dance them, by Caroline Walker; complete instructions for the tango, the Castle walk, the walking Boston, the hesitation waltz, the dream waltz. Walker, Caroline.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Chicago, Saul brothers, 1914.

SUMMARY In her introduction, Walker strongly defends the new dance trends of the ragtime era and provides instructions for the tango, Castle Walk, Walking Boston, Hesitation Waltz, and Dream Waltz. A series of photographs and diagrams is included.

Cotillion figures, by Joel H. Watkins. Watkins, Joel H.

CREATED/PUBLISHED New York, Washington, The Neale publishing company, 1911.

SUMMARY Red and black diagrams are utilized to show the floor patterns of more than twenty figures for the cotillon (also known as the German), a series of party game figures performed to music and an important staple of the ballroom repertory during the last half of the nineteenth century. The figures in Watkins book are, in fact, many of the same figures used in the grand march.

A collection of ball-dances perform'd at court: viz. the Richmond, the roundeau, the rigadoon, the favourite, the Spanheim, and the Britannia. All compos'd by Mr. Isaac, and writ down in characters, by John Weaver, dancing-master. Weaver, John, 1673-1760.

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, Printed for the author, and sold by J. Vaillant, 1706.

SUMMARY Dancer, teacher, and theoretician John Weaver (1673-1760) compiled this important collection of choreographies by Mr. Isaac. With melodies composed by James Paisible, the collection contains six ballroom dances: "The Richman," "The Rondeau," "The Rigadoon," "The Favorite," "The Spanheim," and "The Britannia." All are couple dances and are notated in a notation system first published in 1700 by dancing master Raoul-Auger Feuillet (1659 or 1660-1710). The system is based on tract drawings that trace the pattern of the dance. Additionally, bar lines in the dance score correspond to bar lines in the music score. Signs written on the right or left hand side of the tract indicate the steps.

Dancing, as a means of physical education; with remarks on deformities, and their prevention and cure. By Mrs. Alfred Webster ... Webster, Alfred, Mrs.

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, D. Bogue; [etc., etc.] 1851.

SUMMARY In her strong defense of dance and its application to female physical education, Mrs. Webster declares that dancing, as a exercise, "is the very best safeguard against the evils of over mental education." While she approves of calisthenics and various mechanical apparatus-including swings and pulleys and a "prone couch"-she delivers a stinging rebuke regarding the wearing of corsets.

The dance of modern society. By W. C. Wilkinson. Wilkinson, William Cleaver, 1833-1920.

CREATED/PUBLISHED New York, Oakley, Mason & co., 1869.

SUMMARY Unlike many other nineteenth-century antidance writers who base their arguments on Scripture, Wilkinson asks that his readers formulate their opinions on reason, conscience, and common sense. In fact, Wilkinson argues that he is not an enemy of dance and declares it to be perfectly innocent. His argument is against the "modern manner of dancing" that requires expensive clothing and the "massing together of a jostling crowd of mute or merely gibbering animals." Thus, he summarizes, dancing does nothing to "enhance the intellectual improvement of society."

Asa Willcox's book of figures, 1793; multigraphed from a manuscript in the possession of the Newberry library. Willcox, Asa.

OTHER TITLES Book of figures

CREATED/PUBLISHED Chicago [1918]

SUMMARY Based on an original manuscript published in 1793 and located in Chicago's Newberry Library, the editor of this modern version notes that the "spelling, capitalization, punctuation and underlining of the original have been scrupulosly followed, occasionally at the expense of clearness" (pg. ii). The manuscript contains one- or two-sentence descriptions of figures for thirty-eight country dances (dances that consisted of a series of figures and danced by a column of men facing a column of women).

A study in modern dance positions, by G. Hepburn Wilson ... Wilson, George Hepburn, 1876-

CREATED/PUBLISHED New York, The Inner circle, c1916.

SUMMARY This short manual consists of a series of photographs and accompanying text that show the correct positions for dance, for example the placement of the lady's left hand upon the gentleman's right shoulder in waltzing. Several of the photographs also show the incorrect way of holding one's partner.

An analysis of country dancing, wherein all the figures used in that polite amusement are rendered familiar by engraved lines. Containing also, directions for composing almost any number of figures to one tune, with some entire new reels; together with the complete etiquette of the ball-room. By T. Wilson ... Wilson, Thomas, dancing master.

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, J. S. Dickson, 1811.

SUMMARY Designed for "those who possess no knowledge whatsoever of country-dancing," the manual uses text, tables, and color-coded diagrams to explain the figures for English country dances. Performed as a series of figures by a column of men facing a column of women, the English country dance was one of the most popular early nineteenth-century ballroom dances. Originally published in 1808, the namual was reissued in 1822, and another version appeared in 1815 under the title The complete system of English country dancing. This edition is dedicated to Madame Angiolini, principal dancer at the King's Theatre, where Wilson held the post of dancing master.

An analysis of country dancing: wherein are displayed all the figures ever used in country dances, in a way so easy and familiar, that persons of the meanest capacity may in a short time acquire (without the aid of a master) a complete knowledge of that rational and polite amusement. To which are added, instructions for dancing some entire new reels; together with the rules, regulations, and complete etiquette of the ball room. By T. Wilson ... Embellished and illustrated with engravings on wood, by J. Berryman. Wilson, Thomas, dancing master.

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, Printed by W. Calvert, to be had to Mr. Dutton [etc.] 1808.

SUMMARY This is the first of several books published by Wilson on the subject of English country dancing. Performed as a series of figures by a column of men facing a column of women, the English country dance was one of the most popular early nineteenth-century ballroom dances. Although the manual has a section on ballroom etiquette, it is most useful for its text, tables, and color-coded diagrams, which explain the figures. This edition is dedicated to Madame Desayes, principal dancer at the King's Theatre, where Wilson held the post of dancing master. The manual was expanded and reissued in 1811 and 1822, and a version was published in 1815 entitled The complete system of English country dancing.

The complete system of English country dancing, containing all the figures ever used in English country dancing, with a variety of new figures, and new reels ... By Thomas Wilson ... Wilson, Thomas, dancing master.

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, Sherwood, Neeley and Jones [1815?]

SUMMARY Originally published in 1808 and expanded in 1811 under the title An analysis of country dancing, this edition borrows extensively from earlier editions. As with earlier editions, the figures for English country dances are explained through text, tables, and diagrams. Performed as a series of figures danced by a column of men facing a column of women, the English country dance was one of the most popular early nineteenth-century ballroom dances. This edition contains an extensive discussion on music with ten musical examples scored for treble instrument.

The quadrille and cotillion panorama, or, Treatise on quadrille dancing, in two parts: with an explanation, in French and English, of all the quadrille & cotillion figures generally adopted, as described by diagrams on the plate, by Thomas Wilson ... Wilson, Thomas, dancing master.

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, R. & E. Williamson; New York, Sold by Messrs. Geib and co.; [etc., etc., 18--]

SUMMARY Originally published c. 1818, this second edition of 1822 contains an opening three-color-fold-out and nine plates. In this treatise, Wilson analyzes the figures and components of the quadrille--a figured ballroom dance for four couples facing each other, popular throughout the nineteenth century. Divided into two parts, the manual provides suggestions for music and steps, concluding with an alphabetical list of technical terms used in quadrilles. The manual was reissued in 1839.

The treasures of Terpsichore; or, A companion for the ballroom. Being a collection of all the most popular English country dances, arrange alphabetically, with proper figures to each dance. By T. Wilson ... Wilson, Thomas, dancing master.

OTHER TITLES Companion for the ballroom

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, Printed for the author; and to be had of Messrs. Sherwood, Neely, and Jones, 1816.

SUMMARY One of several treatises devoted to English country dancing by Thomas Wilson, dancing master to the King's Theatre, this manual consists of an alphabetical listing of country dances and their figures. Lamenting the present state of country dancing, the author fears "it [will] be perverted into a chaos of riot and confusion" (p.iii). Wilson's other manuals on the subject contain detailed text, tables, and diagrams to explain the figures. Their titles include An analysis of country dancing (1808 and 1811) and The complete system of English country dancing (1815?).

The danciad; or, Dancer's monitor. Being a descriptive sketch in verse, on the different styles and methods of dancing quadrilles, waltzes, country dances, &c. &c. ... Together with observations on the laws regarding dancing, with extracts from the acts of Parliament relating thereto. By Thomas Wilson ... Wilson, Thomas, dancing master.

OTHER TITLES Dancer's monitor

CREATED/PUBLISHED London, The author, 1824.

SUMMARY "Written in verse as a dramatic play in two parts, Thomas Wilson, dancing master to the King's Theatre, comments on the state of teaching, public balls, and the character of many dance instructors. Nearly every page contains additional remarks in the form of footnotes ranging from an abstract of the 1752 Act of Parliament on illegal dancing to a long discourse on English country dancing and quadrilles.

The perfect art of modern dancing ... [Witherspoon, Edna], Mrs.

CREATED/PUBLISHED London and New York, The Butterick publishing co. (limited) c1894.

SUMMARY This manual, part of a series that included such publications as The perfect art of canning and preserving and Nursing and nourishment for invalids, was directly marketed to women. It begins by discussing the suitability of teaching dance to children. The author suggests that dance is good for health and deportment and lessons should commence at age five. Various dances are described including quadrilles, contra dances, round dances, and the German (also known as the cotillon)

Grammar of the art of dancing, theoretical and practical; lessons in the arts of dancing and dance writing (choregraphy) with drawings, musical examples, choregraphic symblos, and special music scores, translated from the German of Friedrich Albert Zorn... edited by Alfonso Josephs Sheafe ... Zorn, Friedrich Albert.

CREATED/PUBLISHED Boston, Mass. [The Heintzemann press] 1905.

SUMMARY Originally published in Leipzig in 1887 under the title Grammatik der tanzkunst, the book was translated into English and Russian. Zorn is well known for his innovative dance notation system that is utilized in this work. The system is important for its information on the step terminology of mid-nineteenth-century ballet. Through text and notation, the manual covers positions of the feet, preparatory exercises, arm movements, as well as describing many steps. Several quadrille figures are also notated as well as the minuet, gavotte, and numerous waltz, polka, and galop steps. A volume of music that includes over one hundred melodies to accompany the steps, exercise, and dances accompanies this edition.


This is a must have collection for any serious study of the history of dance!

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