Hardtack (also known as pilot bread, ship’s biscuit, shipbiscuit, sea biscuit, sea bread or pejoratively as dog biscuits, tooth dullers, sheet ironor molar breakers.) The name hardtack has its origins from the British sailor slang for food, i.e. “tack”. And since the cracker is as hard as a rock, its name became hard tack (i.e. hard food.)

So what exactly is this cracker that is as hard as a rock?
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During the period of time when Ellis Island/the Port of New York were open and processing immigrants, millions of people from far shores entered the United States to start a new life. As would be expected, most people were everyday folks – known only to friends, family and their employers. Sort of like most people living their lives all around the world today. But also, as would be expected, a small percentage of these immigrants differentiated themselves from the teeming masses by their remarkable accomplishments on the cultural and scientific landscape. Read the rest of this entry »

K Rations were developed in 1941 when the U.S. War department tasked Dr. Ancel Keys with designing a non-perishable, ready-to-eat meal that could fit in a soldier’s pocket as a short-duration, individual ration. Keys did his research at a local supermarket, choosing foods that were inexpensive but high in caloric content. He purchased hard biscuits, hard candy, dry sausages and chocolate bars. His initial k ration weighed in at 28 ounces and packed a whopping 3,200 calories. The rations were tested on soldiers who gave uniformly low ratings for their taste but said that they did relieve hunger and provide energy for the days tasks. Due to the lack of balance in these meals, they were intended for short duration activities only. In fact, they were recommended for a maximum of only 15 meals before the soldiers were to be put on the more balanced ‘A’ or ‘B’ field rations. Read the rest of this entry »

One of the functions of the post office is to issue commemorative stamps. Commemorative stamps commemorate people, places, artwork and ideas and are hot collectibles. Read the rest of this entry »

The United Space Program run by NASA sent men to the moon a total of six times. The flights were:

  • Apollo 11 with a crew consisting of Neil A. Armstrong (commander), Michael Collins (CM pilot), Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr. (LM pilot)
  • Apollo 12 with a crew consisting of Charles Conrad Jr. (commander), Richard F. Gordon Jr. (CM pilot), Alan L. Bean (LM pilot)
  • Apollo 14 with a crew consisting of Alan B. Shepard Jr. (commander), Stuart A. Roosa (CM pilot), Edgar D. Mitchell (LM pilot)
  • Apollo 15 with a crew consisting of David R. Scott (commander), Alfred M. Worden (CM pilot), James B. Irwin (LM pilot)
  • Apollo 16 with a crew consisting of John W. Young (commander), Thomas K. Mattingly II (CM pilot), Charles M. Duke Jr. (LM pilot) Apollo 17 with a crew consisting of Eugene A. Cernan (commander), Ronald E. Evans (CM pilot), Harrison H. Schmitt (LM pilot) Read the rest of this entry »